# Earnings Estimates Glossary

**Book Value Per Share (BPS)**

The book value of a company divided by the number of shares outstanding.

**Cash Flow Per Share (CPS)**

A corporation’s cash flow from operations, before investing and financing activities, divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the year. Investing includes the sale or purchase of land, factories, buildings etc.

**Coefficient of Variation (CV)**

The standard deviation of the estimates, for the period indicated, expressed as a percent of the mean estimate.

**Difference From Previous Close**

Difference From Previous Close = (Median Price Target - Prev Close Price)

**Dividends Per Share (DPS)**

A corporation’s common stock dividends on an annualized basis, divided by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the year.

**Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBI)**

Represents the earnings of a company before interest expense and income taxes paid. As such, EBIT is a gauge of corporate earnings before any debt servicing to creditors (including bondholders) and the payment of corporate taxes.

**Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBT)**

EBITDA gauges the raw earnings power of a company before debt servicing, corporate taxes, and any allowances made for depreciation and amortization costs the company faces.

**Earnings Per Share (EPS)**

A corporation’s net income from continuing operations divided by the weighted average number of shares outstanding for the year.

**Exchange**

The name of the primary exchange on which the stock is traded.

**Exchange Rate**

Rate at which one currency may be converted into another.

**Exchange Rate to USD**

Rate at which the local currency may be converted into US Dollars.

**Five Year Historical EPS Growth **

The average annualized earnings per share growth for a company over the past five years.

**Five Year Historical EPS Stability**

Five-year earnings per share stability measures the consistency of earnings per share growth over the past five years.

**Funds From Operations (FFO)**

A measure used by real estate investment trusts (REITS) and other investment trusts to define the cash flow from trust operations. It is calculated by adding depreciation and amortization expenses to earnings, and sometimes quoted on a per share basis.

**FY0 End Date**

The calendar month and year-end corresponding to the prior fiscal year (FY0).

**GAAP Earnings Per Share (GPS)**

Reported earnings per share, defined as net profit (on continuous activities) divided by the weighted average number of shares outstanding during the period. Where a company carries exceptional items or goodwill amortization, this measure is post-exceptional, post-goodwill.

**Growth FY1/FY0**

A simple measure of one year earnings per share growth from the prior fiscal year (FY0) to the current fiscal year (FY1).

**Growth FY2/FY1**

A simple measure of one year earnings per share growth from the current fiscal year (FY1) to the following fiscal year (FY2).

**Growth FY3/FY2**

A simple measure of one year earnings per share growth from fiscal year two (FY2) to the following fiscal year (FY3).

**Growth, Industry Relative, FY1/FY0**

A comparison of the projected earnings per share growth for a company for the current fiscal year, to the aggregate growth for the industry in which the company is classified.

**Growth, Industry Relative, FY2/FY1**

A comparison of the projected earnings per share growth for a company looking one year ahead, to the aggregate growth for the industry in which the company is classified.

**Growth, Industry Relative, FY3/FY2**

A comparison of the projected earnings per share growth for a company looking two years ahead, to the aggregate growth for the industry in which the company is classified.

**High Estimate**

The greatest value in a set of estimates for a company, for the fiscal period indicated.

**Indicated Annual Dividend**

For US stocks, the Indicated Annual Dividend is four times the most recently paid quarterly dividend, after adjusting for splits. For non-US stocks, there is considerable variance across markets with regard to the frequency of dividend payments.

**Last Actual**

The reported annual value for a company for the prior fiscal year (FY0).

**Long Term Growth**

While different analysts apply different methodologies, the Long Term Growth Forecast generally represents an expected annual increase in operating earnings over the company’s next full business cycle.

**Low Estimate**

The smallest value in a set of estimates for a company, for the fiscal period indicated.

**Mean**

The arithmetic average of estimates for the fiscal period indicated.

**Mean Recommendation**

Analyst recommendations are rated on a 1 to 5 scale. 1 is equivalent to a strong buy rating, 3 a hold rating, and 5 a sell rating. The Mean Recommendation is the average rating on a stock by the analyst community.

**Mean, One Month % Change**

The difference expressed as a percentage, between the current mean estimate and the mean estimate based upon a rolling 4-week monthly cycle.

**Median**

That estimate which falls in the middle of the defined range of estimates, when arranged in ascending order.

**Median Price Target**

The median value of the price at which analysts are expecting a stock to rise to within a specific period of time.

**Net Asset Value (NAV)**

Net Asset Value is the total book value of a company’s securities.

**Net Debt (NDT)**

Calculated as short- and long-term interest-bearing debt minus cash (and equivalents).

**Net Income (NET) **

Net income is defined as a corporation’s after-tax income.

**Number of Estimates**

The number of estimates for a company, for the fiscal period indicated.

**Number of Estimates Lowered (# Down)**

The number of estimates that have been lowered (from their immediate previous values) over the last four weeks. New estimates and multiple estimate changes are not counted in this sum.

**Number of Estimates Raised (# Up)**

The number of estimates that have been increased (from their immediate previous values) over the last four weeks. New estimates and multiple estimate changes are not counted in this sum.

**Operating Profit (OPR)**

Operating Profit is the difference between a company’s revenues and its costs and expenditures arising directly out of a company’s regular operations.

**P/E Ratio - Actual (FY0)**

The price/earnings ratio for the company based on the most recent closing price in the database and the last reported annual earnings per share.

**P/E Ratio - Estimate (FY1, FY2)**

The price/earnings ratio for the company based on most recent closing price in the database and the annual mean expected earnings for the fiscal period selected.

**P/E Ratio Ind. Relative**

P/E Ratio Ind. Relative = (P/E Ratio For Company) / (P/E Ratio for Industry)

**Parent Companies**

Companies are classified as parent when only the earnings of the reporting entity, including dividends, interest, royalties, etc. received from its investee companies, are presented as net income.

**Percent (%) Difference**

% Difference = [(Median Price Target / Prev Close Price) - 1] * 100

**Price (Prev Close)**

The latest per share closing price of the stock.

**Price Date**

The trading date upon which the most recent closing price is based.

**Price, Fifty-Two Week High **

The highest closing per share price of the stock over the past fifty-two weeks.

**Price, Fifty-Two Week Low **

The lowest closing per share price of the stock over the past fifty-two weeks.

**Reported**

The reported annual value for a company for the fiscal year indicated.

**Return on Equity (ROE)**

Return on Equity is another profitability ratio which gauges return on investment by measuring how effectively stockholder money is being employed by the company.

**Sales (SAL)**

The Sales measure is a corporation’s net revenue, generally derived from core business activities.

**Standard Deviation**

The statistical measure of dispersion of estimates for the fiscal period indicated. The standard deviation is the average variance from the mean expressed in local currency.

**Surprise %**

The difference, expressed as a percent, between the actual (reported) earnings and the I/B/E/S Surprise mean EPS estimate for a company, for the fiscal period indicated.

**Yield**

The indicated annual or consensus dividend forecast as a percentage of the current price.